Dec 3, 2016

Biggest recent change in Java

Past big changes include Generics and Lambdas and Next big change is modularization - project jigsaw - that is on going for a very long time - coming live in Java 9.
Big problems solved by modularisation are Classpath and monolithic JDK. Modules - breaking JDK into multiple modules.
Java architects have realized over time JDK has became on big monolith platform with many components/packages.

The list of packages only grows with time - we have experienced this - how many jar's we include in the classpath or include in library. A sample from Hadoop is below -
Module -
Classes and interfaces are part of package.  Packages will now be organised into module. So module is a component similar to class and package. Module is collection of packages. A module can be dependent on multiple other modules. Module will export packages for use to modules that depend on it.
To create a new module - Create a new java file and instead of class say module -

It will be compiled like a java file. Above module depends on one module ( and exports two packages inside it for use to modules that will depend on it.

So print for a simple program - print Hello World; we need only one module not complete jars from jdk - only one base module - java.base

For more information - a very nice video is available -


Sep 25, 2016

MBA in UK from Warwick Business School

I started writing this post in 2016, when I started my MBA and completing it in 2018.  I share my experience here.

People raise eyebrows when you say I am going to UK for MBA because I believe getting job is not easy.  I assure getting into MBA college in UK is easier that completing formalities for VISA.
Colleges are increasing intakes and a good essay and interview can secure place in decent MBA college.  I will recommend LBS, Cambridge, Oxford, Imperial, Cass, and Warwick.  GMAT is also optional for most of the colleges.

Tier 4 Student VISA

Start accumulating your funds in one account - on your name and if possible no sharing - so that sufficient fund is available 1 month before submitting online application.
If you are getting education loan then attach original sanction letter - on letter head and stamped.
If you are shwoing funds from multiple accounts then attach a cover letter providing details.
Indeed its good idea to attach a cover letter with VISA application proviing details of documents and other required details in concise manner -

The Visa Officer
Subject: Visa Application
Dear Sir/Madam
This is in reference to my PBS Tier 4 Student Visa application.
I would like to inform you that programme selectors have made me and unconditional offer of a place in The MBA by full-time study in xyz Business School, The University of xyz
I have x years of industry experience and I have choosen MBA course to/for .......
xyz Business School is the best place for me to receive MBA education because .....
Post MBA I wish to come back to my home country and ......
I have already paid deposit of xyz GBP and remaining fee for course is abc GBP, combined with maintenance fees of def GBP, total fees is ghi GBP.
I am providing the below documents to support the evidence of funds available to me in order to finance my education and accommodation at the University of xyz:....."

Be prepared with VISA interview questions -
1. Why MBA
2. Why UK
3. Why xyz university

If your VISA application gets refused (mine got refused first time) the reapply.  While reapplying you can choose fast track option too.

Booking flight tickets:  Book flight tickets even before you get VISA because its cheap booking in advance. Most of the flights provide extra luggage (approx. 70 Kg.) for student VISA holders but probably you need to book from their website.

Immigration: Immigration officer will ask for same documents used for VISA application so keep it handy.

Hostel Keys: Its similar to checkin into hotel. Reach hostel and collect keys.

It was beautiful morning and sunshine when I arrived. Sunshine is less observed so enjoy it most whenever wherever you find it.

Initial Weeks and First term

Networking, networking, and networking: MBA is all about networking.
In all sessions and lectures you will here this. It seems only way of getting job in UK is networking.   
The week had good sessions over Strategy: SWOT, VRIO, etc. Career Sessions and Consultancy and Industry overview.   You come to know success rate for getting job from job sites (also called open job market) is 5%. Most of the market is hidden and can only be reached by networking.   One good part of Warwick MBA is RSC project. A free visit to Royal Shakespeare Company and Shakespeare's birth place. The visit is part of strategy assignment. 

(Image sources -

I want to share my experience so that one following the same path can benefit from it and not make mistakes that I made.

Term 1 - Theories, Group Work, and Strategy

Lot of things are taught in first term:
  • Marketing - Good theories but little practical
  • Accounting & Finance - I don't remember any formula I learned
  • Operations Management - I got basic understanding of Operations, which might help
  • Organisation Behavior - No comments
  • Strategy - Though I wasn't impressed by Professor but Subject is very good as it gives good understanding of business & Strategy.  Remember, Strategy is the Business and Business is Strategy.  Strategy also helps in technology strategy or marketing or operations strategy because once you understand the concept of Value, then you can apply it anywhere. 
No doubt all are important.  Coming from IT background and willing to make a career in IT: Marketing, Operations, and Strategy were only beneficial for me.  Among all Strategy is the most important and never miss a class of strategy along with doing all the pre-readings and case studies.  Try to relate strategy to your prior experience and industry.  Term 1 is also important in terms of scoring because it is difficult to score when it comes to electives (in Term 3 & 4) because in electives many times professors are external and sometimes they are strict.  Term 1 is focused on building the foundation on all topics so it is very important to prioritize time and focus on the things which will help in achieving your target.  For example, During MBA, I wanted to move to Digital Consulting so it was important for me to understand Strategy most and then bit of Operations and Marketing.  If your is to move into Technology then apart from Strategy rest all might be useless.  Don't work hard on topics and subjects that are not going to help.  Leadership Plus consumed lot of time and it was not really that much worth.  Many networking events, leaders talk, parties, etc will happen and they will consume your time and they are not counted so avoid them unless interested. 

Term is mostly about Theories and one might learn nothing but it has 3 practical group assignments: Strategy (RSC), Marketing, and Operations.  These three group assignments are really good way to learn team work in diversified team and strategy.  Control your emotions in group work and focus on learning from others. 

Term 2 - Travel, Case Competitions, and Job Applications

Term 2 had several travel including Vancouver and Dublin and those were the best part of MBA.  Though time get wasted in flight and etc but one can make most of the trip by visiting new places. 
One of the most important module in this term is "Managing in New world" and this is really good because it is all about International Business - This is next step of business.  This is also right time to participate in case competitions, which are really fun and exciting.  This is time when Job applications begin.   Leadership Plus was not good but attendance is marked.  Ethics module was also time consuming but better not skip classes and not spend much time on it. 

Term 3 - Electives and Job Applications

This is where Job Applications and Job search must begin.  The reality of jobs is very different from what you might have assumed therefore, it is important to understand the market on right time.  May be the kind of role you want is not much available in UK.  May be some role is suitable for you based on your background that you have not thought of.   Try to finish electives in this term that is 5 weeks of classes.   

Term 4 - Dissertation and Interviews

I had 3 modules in term 4 and I was unable to find or apply for job in term 4 because I was too busy with modules and project and dissertation so better finish electives in term 3 only.  Dissertation is marked most in MBA and focus on that.  Pick a topic or subject that you want to learn like I choose Machine Learning and some people choose their startup.  I will suggest to choose your startup if you have any idea in mind because you will get 3 months to do research, prepare business plan, and so on.

Things you might regret not doing

Walking & Running in Campus

One year is good time to enjoy the green campus and good health.  One might not get similar beautiful land to run every morning.  I reduced my waist by 4 inches during my MBA by eating right and walking lot. 


Download the app in the first week and start exploring the events in London, Birmingham, and nearby.  Search for free events that allow networking and learning and may be food and drinks.  The speakers in London events are great and definitely build an opportunity to learn and network.  Be very selective for events and do not sacrifice much time and money on events.  Focus on free events that are on spare time. 


Travel and explore places in and around UK.  Its great fun to travel alone or with friends.  

Museums, Castles, Libraries, Parks

Most beautiful attractions and Museums, Castles, and Libraries.  If you don't like any of them then start liking them - they are amazing in UK.  Visit especially all free ones. 

University Library

Start spending more and more time in library.  Its best place to learn.  I miss library most. Especially in my dissertation time, I used to spend 11 am till 11 pm in library.  Library became my best friend.

Building on your background

Never forget your background, your skills, your experience, your previous companies, and your past colleagues.  Keep updating and keep refreshing them throughout year.  After MBA completes job interviews are mostly focused on your background.  If you had a technical skill then keep on updating it rather than getting lost n buzz words such as AI, Machine Learning, and Blockchain. 

Things you wont regret not doing during MBA

Language classes 

The language classes are held in the first term - once or twice every week.  Taking language class is mandatory but even if you skip all classes nothing happens.  One can take advantage of the opportunity to learn new language but for me it was too cold to attend 2 hr class form 6:30 PM till 8:30 PM.  I attended probably 7/10 classes.  If I had attended 8/10 classes, I would have got a certificate of attending classes but no use unless I can speak that language.

Networking Events 

MBA course has huge focus on events.  One can set aside 5000 GBP for events during MBA course.  One will be told from very beginning to attend events.  In the first week mba candidates attend events and start networking.  I myself spend lot of time and money on events - travel to London, overnight stay in London, paid events, networking dinners, and so on; AND nothing helped.  I didn't got any benefit from most of the events.  Events are like gamble, you lose most of the times but you might hit a jackpot.  To be safer side attend events in which you can learn such as I was from tech background and I attended events on AWS, Google Cloud, AI, and so on; therefore I get an opportunity to learn.  Select events based on learning not based on networking.

Focus on Dissertation and not on Project 

Note dissertation is marked, project is not.  When choosing P&D most of the time focus is on choosing company but in very rare cases that company offers job.   There is a conflict between the company's expectation from project and supervisor's expectation from dissertation; therefore my recommendation is if one is interested in desk based then it is better option. Company project can be avoided.  I did my project with Capco and Capco didn't even shortlisted my CV for any position.  Capco offered jobs to people who probably didn't do project with them.   

Electives in Shard

Shard is good place to visit for events but classes in Shard will be hectic. While choosing electives one can avoid giving preference to Shard.  Most of the executive & distance MBA candidates come to Warwick to attend the electives.


Some things you better know early regarding finding job in UK (Relevant 2017-2018 most)
  1. One page resume will cause rejection in many companies
  2. There is limit imposed on total number of Tier 2 work visa; therefore, it is competitive
  3. Set limit to grandiose words (CEO, MD, 500%, etc.) in resume
  4. Put technical terms: CRM, ERP, Salesforce, AWS, etc. to attract


Sep 12, 2016

Hierarchical Database to Relational Database

Early databases were hierarchical databases – data organized in a tree structure.  IBM introduced first generation of database: IMS (Information Management System) in 60’s. Data in a hierarchical database is organized in a tree like structure.

Which works fine for a family tree

But can’t work for an Enterprise application in which relations are not always hierarchical –

A Seller can sell multiple products, which can be bought by multiple customers, who can have different payment methods for different orders.
We can think of Product, Customer, Order, Payment, and Seller as entities with relationship to each other, which is not hierarchical.

In above structure data is in entities which are related. Entity relations can be one-to-many (Seller and product, because a seller can sell multiple products), one-to-one (Product and Order, one order can be placed for a product), many-to-one (orders and customer, many orders can relate to one customer), and many-to-many (customer can have multiple address and same address can belong to multiple customers).

Data in RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) is structured – Divided into tables in which each table has structure (rows and columns) and they are related. RDBMS support structured query language (sql) for data definition and manipulation.  RDBMS require schema creation (architecture of database) and users need to be granted privileges for data access. Further RDBMS also provide UI tools for easy data view. Tables in RDBMS have a primary key for uniquely identifying the record such as EMPLOYEE_ID can be primary key (PK) in EMPLOYEE table. Every employee record in EMPLOYEE table has a unique value of EMPLOYEE_ID. Tables rarely exist in isolation and structure of table is a contract which can’t be break during data storage.


Jun 27, 2016

REST vs SOAP - fundamental difference

Today morning I read interesting difference between SOAP and REST on "Smart Bear" site -

SOAP is like an envelope while REST is just a postcard. Certainly a postcard is faster and cheaper to send than an envelope, but it could still be wrapped within something else, even an envelope. You can just read a postcard too, while an envelope takes a few extra steps, like opening or unwrapping to access what’s inside.


May 31, 2016

Introduce yourself - Software Engineer

You can visit my LinkedIn profile -
to know more about me.  I have added a summary to my profile but still the first question I faced in interviews bothered my lot - "Tell me something about yourself ?".

Many times when I am taking interview I asked same question but answers bit awkward and some times it seems people don't know themselves.  Some people start explaining about projects, some about their company, some emphasize lot on work experience, and some even tell about personal life.
I prepared my introduction last year and I really got success with this introduction -

"Hi!!! I am and I have 10 years of industry experience in IT Architecture, IT Development, and IT Support. I have worked with big technology firms, startup, bank, telecom, and Advertising companies in roles requiring leadership, management, consulting, communication, team work, and technical skills. Currently I am working with as Solution Designer & Project Lead for Online banking applications, which are used by several  Banks including Credit Cards, Retail, and Wealth. Before Barclays, I was with IBM working as Team Leader and I was part of Smarter Planet initiative project to build load shedding solution for EDF, France. 

I have designed and developed Middle Office for Stock Exchange, Enterprise Integration layer for Telecom giant, and CRM for Advertising firms.  I worked with a Startup for 3 years as a Technology Consultant in which not only I provided technical consulting but also understood business of clients and proposed & developed solutions such as digital marketing, data management, and analytics.

I completed my graduation in Computer Science in year <> and I have interests in Travelling, Blogging, Psychology, and active lifestyle.  I ran personal blog for more than 5 years, and I published white papers, and presented technology architecture in companies I have worked.

I have coached and trained my colleagues & friends over technologies, methodologies, latest trends, and work life balance.  I am active on most social media sites and I have people from every background in my network. "

Tell interviewer you have good experience, you are ready for challenge, you can work in any adverse situations, and you have diversified skills.

In short you are like nature.

I have updated my eBook "Java Notes" for effective Java interview in 2018, which one can download for free from slideshare. Please feel free to share the feedback so that I can update the book and this post.

Mar 13, 2016

Sprint - Goal and Done

Sprint planning done on first day of Sprint and it results in two artifacts -
Sprint goal
Sprint backlog

Sprint goal is top priority and throughout Sprint development team members adjust tasks to achieve Sprint Goal.

(Ref -

Everything such as functionality, architecture, and tasks, can be adjusted to achieve Sprint Goal.
Sprint Goal is purpose of Sprint and it represents a business problem that is solved in this Sprint.
At the end Sprint goal will be presented in Sprint Review and
Stake holders might evaluate the product on account of Sprint goal.
Sprint Review is a time boxed event at end of Sprint in which usually development team present the increment and
stakeholders inspect and access impact.
In initial stages Sprint goal might be designing UX/UI and in later stages Sprint goal will addressing business
problems and deliver incremental product.
In a Sprint development team endeavor to deliver shipable product increment.
Weather an increment will make to production will depend on Definition of Done.

A Sprint goal might be to only develop the feature.
But feature will be complete (done) when it meets below - development, tested, integrated, documented, and now ready to be released in production.

If teams are mature and aim production release every Sprint then Sprint Goal will be to build feature to that it passes Done definition and released in production at end of Sprint.


Feb 17, 2016

MBA after 10+ IT experience

Yes, there's no wrong time or right time to do right thing., and if you are waiting for that perfect moment that's not going to happen. We have to create that moment. Les brown was right but things are not always in our hands. I planned to do MBA 10 years back when but back then when I completed graduation, getting into job was a priority because of finance, family expectations, and my desire for entrepreneurship and consulting. Then I wanted to know more about technology, how large scale software’s are developed, and corporate culture.  I wanted to do MBA 5 years back when I got married and I spending time with family was my priority. I gave GMAT few years back when I was so busy with my work and family and it affected my score. This year is so far so good and I didn't made any resolutions. 
Yes its a true story and every MBA college I applied believed in this. 

If you had a similar aspiration of doing something then you should be able to narrate it Why now. I always had desire of formal education from reputed institute and it was a piece missing in my resume. Even after 11 years of experience I feel I still need to fill that gap in resume and empty education section. May be I would be doing the same work but changing work was not the primary motive behind doing MBA. 

Answering Why MBA might be tough for anyone but was easy for me because its real because I have worked in several roles such as Consultant, Engineer, Leader, Designer and Manager, and I have gained advisory, technical, communication, business and management skills which help me see technology change the shape of business. It takes more than hard work and technical skills to succeed at top; therefore I felt need for high quality education for deeper understanding business, strategic management, and global perspective. Building command over several subject areas - finance, marketing, and operations was also another motive. With my experience I was able to connect technology to governance, devices to revenue, and data to analytics but I lacked the connection between vision, leadership, initiatives, and culture. I also wish to reach and work for non-IT companies and maybe own the technology strategy not for a project but for a company.  

Now after 10+ years in IT I feel I got so much insight and I really feel skills in hand and leadership in mind. I feel so confident about my experience as if I have consummate skills and I lacked this confidence 5 years back. When I had 6 years of experience no company was ready to take me because I made 7 switch and consistent 4 years in one company also removed that flaw. Indeed now I believe its time

 I have not yet decided but getting into good MBA college after 10+ years of IT experience is not tough. 
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